, Initially, the Spanish forces in Morocco were largely composed of conscripts and reservists from Spain itself. By 1926 the area had been pacified; Abd-el-Krim surrendered in 1926; and the Spanish regained the previously lost territory.  The promise of the Spanish state collecting revenues in the form of taxes and royalties from iron mining here was an incentive for it to bring the Rif under its control.  Spain still had 14,000 soldiers in Melilla. After one year of bitter resistance, Abd el-Krim, the leader of both the tribes, surrendered to French authorities, and in 1926 Spanish Morocco was finally retaken. As their number grew, the Spanish Legion and the Regulares increasingly led offensive operations after the disasters that had been suffered by the conscript forces. For centuries, the Berber tribes of the Rif had fought off any attempt of outsiders to impose control on them. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? , Thus the Spanish could keep their biggest base in the eastern Rif.  Many soldiers bartered their rifles and ammunition at the local markets in exchange for fresh vegetables. The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. The Spanish government handed over the administration and “pacification” of the protectorate to the Spanish army.  On September 13, 1923, General Miguel Primo de Rivera, 2nd Marqués de Estella, seized power in a military coup d'état. The Rifian forces had consolidated their hold of the inland mountains and stalemate was reached. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Historians debate whether the Rif War is better understood as a secular insurgency against a colonial power or a war in defense of Islam and Berber independence. Abd el-Krim asked the religious leaders of Fez for their support as a matter of religious duty. The Rif War (Spanish: Guerra del Rif; Arabic: حروب الريف Ḥarb ar-Rīf) was an armed conflict fought from 1920 to 1927 between the colonial power Spain (later joined by France) and the Berber tribes of the Rif mountainous region of Morocco.  For all these reasons, Spain began pushing into the Rif in 1909.  Because of the prostitutes from Spain, who attached themselves in great number to the Spanish bases in Morocco, venereal diseases were rampant in the Spanish Army. "How and why to remember the Rif War (1921–2021). About 43,500 Spanish troops were killed or wounded or went missing during the war; Spain’s ally France counted about 18,000 as killed, wounded, or missing. However, the Rifian regular army was never a very large force. However, the unpopularity of the war in Spain and the earlier humiliations of the Spanish military contributed to the instability of the Spanish government and the military coup of 1923. These "Peninsular" troops were poorly supplied and prepared, few had marksmanship skills and proper battle training, and widespread corruption was reported amongst the officer corps, reducing supplies and morale. Spanish troops were pushed back to Melilla, which was their biggest base in the eastern Rif. The French troops pushed through from the south while the Spanish fleet and army secured Alhucemas Bay by an amphibious landing, and began attacking from the north. Tucson, Arizona, (1976).  By the end of August Spanish forces at Melilla numbered 36,000 under General Jose Sanjurjo and the slow process of recovering the lost territory could begin. , The remaining Rifians were tribal militia selected by their Caids; they were not liable to serve away from their homes and farms for more than 15 consecutive days. , The Rif War had starkly polarized Spanish society between the africanistas who wanted to conquer an empire in Africa vs. the abandonistas who wanted to abandon Morocco as not worth the blood and treasure. David S. Woolman, page 96 "Rebels in the Rif", Stanford University Press, David S. Woolman, pp. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. However, the unpopularity of the war in Spain and the earlier defeats of the Spanish military contributed to the instability of the Spanish government and the military coup of 1923. That's it. David S. Woolman, page 68 "Rebels in the Rif", Stanford University Press. Series Viking Fund publications in anthropology ; no. ", This page was last edited on 18 October 2020, at 20:53. As an outcome of the Treaty of Fez (1912) Spain gained possession of the lands around Melilla and Ceuta. 95–102 "Rebels in the Rif", Stanford University Press 1968, David S. Woolman, page 131 "Rebels in the Rif", Stanford University Press, David S. Woolman, page 132 "Rebels in the Rif", Stanford University Press. As they received no share of the profits, the Rifians soon began to oppose the mining in their territory. The report that resulted—the Expediente Picasso—was damning.  The barracks that the soldiers lived in were unsanitary and medical care at the few hospitals very poor. "Spain and Her Moroccan Protectorate 1898–1927,", La Porte, Pablo. Spanish artillery firing outside Melilla during the Rif War. "El general Sanjurjo". , In May 1924, the French Army had established a line of out-posts north of the Oureghla River in disputed tribal territory. Spanish troops were pushed back to Melilla, which was their biggest base in the eastern Rif.  Up in the mountains, Spanish soldiers lived in small outposts known as blocaos, which the American historian Stanley Payne observed: "Many of these lacked any sort of toilet, and the soldier who ventured out of the filthy bunker risked exposure to the fire of lurking tribesmen". Later Abd el-Krim would admit: "I bitterly regret this order.  The Rif was also rich in high-grade iron, which could be easily extracted via open pit mining. , The average Spanish soldier in Morocco in 1921 was paid the equivalent of thirty-four US cents per day, and lived on a simple diet of coffee, bread, beans, rice and the odd piece of meat.  In August 1923, Spanish soldiers embarking for Morocco mutinied at the railway stations, other soldiers in Malaga simply refused to board the ships that were to take them to Morocco, while in Barcelona huge crowds of left-wingers had staged anti-war protests at which Spanish flags were burned while the flag of the Rif Republic was waved about. Accordingly, much reliance came to be placed on the mainly professional units comprising Spain's Army of Africa. Updates? What percentage of the Government of the Confederacy Supported the war in the lead up??? In the process he replaced a hierarchical society with a centralized bureaucracy and fighting force, a Muslim legal code, international trade arrangements, and a nascent network of roads and telecommunications. His insolence merits a new punishment". Alvarez, Jose "Between Gallipoli and D-Day: Alhucemas, 1925" pages 75-98 from The Journal of Military History, Vol.