spoil heap construction

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Therefore, the use of simplified limit equilibrium analyses to assess the reliability of spoil dumps may be inappropriate and lead to erroneous results.

2.2 of this paper. Tests on samples from Bełchatów and Vrsany were conducted according to ASTM standards for: particle-size distribution (gradation), ASTM D6913; Atterberg limits, ASTM D4318; water (moisture) content, ASTM D2216; and density (unit weight), ASTM D7263. (2009) used limit equilibrium methods to conduct a back-analysis of a large-scale failure in an external waste dump of the South Field lignite mine in northern Greece.

The challenges associated with numerical and probabilistic modelling of spoil heap stability, such as the inherent spatial variability of spoils and the time-dependent changes in their geotechnical properties, are also critically discussed. Modelling techniques that are usually applied for stability of spoil heaps are also critically discussed based on a review of examples within the literature that use limit equilibrium analyses (Nguyen et al. “Employers undertaking this type of activity have a duty to ensure that staff are competent to inflate larger higher-risk tyres, to use a system of work that is safe, and to implement effective management systems to supervise and monitor such activities.”. Folkestone Magistrates’ Court heard the injured worker was cutting and cleaning a pipe for rejoining at a depth in excess of two metres when a side of the pit suddenly gave way, creating a slip of soil and debris. Moreover, post-mining reclamation is required so that excavated lands can be restored for different uses, such as forestry, agriculture, or leisure activities. Very large tyres such as those found in agriculture, quarries etc may be too big to fit into a restraint. In: Stefano ALC, Luciano P, Claudio S (eds) Landslides and engineered slopes experience, theory and practice: proceedings of the 12th international symposium on Landslides, Napoli, Italy. However, this is largely a manual and often laborious process, especially for tasks related to the verification of data consistency or identification of discrepancies or trends within the data. It is important to note that the presence of coal particles in spoil heaps have not been frequently reported, but Borecka (2007) indicated coal contents between 0 and 65 vol% in samples from spoil heaps of the Turów lignite mine. 2002). His employer was prosecuted, and fined a total of £60,000 plus £39,506 costs, by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) after an investigation found the excavation pit was missing vital shoring. Results showed that there was a critical GC (10%) improving or controlling infiltration and soil loss. In terms of friction angle, mean and standard deviation values were computed as 25.9° and 7.2°, leading to a characteristic value equal to slightly larger than 22°. Another source of extreme variability in spoils is the presence of materials that are deposited along with the excavated overburden. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Thus, the risk of combustion-induced instabilities in spoil heaps is directly related to the source of the material being dumped. Cheng and Usmen (1987) employed PEM and MCS to account for the large variability of geotechnical parameters in spoils to assess the safety of an embankment consisting of coal refuse material. This has resulted in numerous fatalities over the years.
Although various advanced models of soil behaviour have been developed over the years, (which adequately capture the complex features of specific material behaviour), no constitutive models specifically adapted to spoil materials are found in the literature. New sentencing guidelines introduced for corporate manslaughter, health and safety and food safety, Dichloromethane (DCM) Restriction: firm sentenced after worker dies after inhaling paint stripper, Dumpers: construction firm sentenced after dumper truck topple. In addition to the above, data from the Turów mine in Poland (Borecka 2007), the As Pontes mine in Spain (Varela et al.

FEM can readily simulate the formation process of a slope, either via the sequential removal (cut slope) or the successive placement (embankment slope) of material into a finite element mesh domain. pre-excavation) and the physical and engineering properties can be extremely variable, both spatially and temporally. Eng Geol 75:129–146, Vanmarcke E (1983) Random fields: analysis and synthesis. Regardless of the adopted method, there will be uncertainties associated with any slope stability analysis.

Most fatal injuries involving dumpers are caused by: It is important to select the right dumper for the job. A strong, firmly-secured cage.

Moreover, the hydraulic properties of the formation beneath the spoil heaps are of great significance. 2a, b), Vrsany (Fig. a Grain size distribution of spoils—the shaded area roughly represents the grain size distributions reported in the literature; Vrsany mine samples obtained from cores at depth indicated in legend; b the plasticity index of samples from Bełchatów and Vrsany mines, a Textural classes of the 229 soil samples of Turów mine spoil heap (after Borecka 2007); b the USDA classification of samples from Bełchatów and Vrsany mines compared with those reported in the literature. The drainage mechanisms in spoil heaps affect water seepage and consequently the effective stress distribution, which is vital when considering stability. The gravels are divided into 3 classes according to particle size 2–14 mm (small), 14–25 mm (medium), 25–50 mm (large), and the mass ratios were 30%, 50%, and 20%.

The guidelines require the court to “step back”, review and adjust the initial fine if necessary.

https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2389.2001.00354.x, Chen ZX, Wang WL, Kang HL, Guo MM, Yang B, Wang WX, Zhao M (2019) Effects of gravel on runoff and sediment yield of red soil engineering accumulation slopes. 1996), numerical models (Poulsen et al. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-020-02729-6, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-020-02729-6, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in The type, depth, and geological setting of the overburden material are mainly functions of the geological age and diagenetic origin of the lignite and may significantly differ from one place to another. Similar bi-planar wedge limit equilibrium models were developed for the case of Turkish spoil heaps which were subsequently utilised to investigate possible remedial measures for the stabilisation of identified incipient failure mechanisms (Ulusay et al. In: Charzyński P, Hulisz P, Bednarek R (eds) Technogenic soils of Poland. For more information visit the HSE web page http://www.hse.gov.uk/mvr/mechanical-repair/tyreremoval.htm or contact us on 07896 016380 or at Fiona@eljay.co.uk, and we’ll be happy to help. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.01.021, Jordán A, Zavala LM, Gil J (2010) Effects of mulching on soil physical properties and runoff under semi-arid conditions in southern Spain. Finally, important research gaps and key shortcomings in the methods of design and analysis of spoil heap slopes in lignite mines are summarised.

The data reported by Steiakakis et al. In addition, slope stability analyses should be able to account for the impact of weather conditions by simulating rainfall infiltration and/or groundwater seepage in and around the heterogeneous and anisotropic spoil materials within an unsaturated soil mechanics framework. Stability and characterisation of spoil heaps in European surface lignite mines: a state-of-the-art review in light of new data, $$SRF = \frac{{\tan \varphi^{\prime}}}{{\tan \varphi_{r}^{\prime } }} = \frac{{c^{\prime}}}{{c_{r}^{\prime } }}$$, https://euracoal.eu/info/country-profiles/czech-republic/, https://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/EY_European_Lignite_Mines_Benchmarking_2014/$FILE/EY-European-Lignite-Mines-Benchmarking-2014.pdf, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-019-8506-7.

While addressing remedial action with offenders is the responsibility of the Health and Safety Executive rather than the courts, the guideline does provide for remedial orders to be made by the court in addition to or instead of punishment in cases where they may be appropriate.

Soil Tillage 46:81–95.

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